Whenever I ask students to improve cohesion, they say that they already know all linking words. But unfortunately, most use linking words blindly. Linking words are helpful to stitch two ideas together. We can use them logically to connect two paragraphs, two ideas or even two sentences together.
Add information that is related to the previous point but may not be closely related.
In addition, <sentence>
The heater keeps the house warm. In addition, it doesn’t cost much.
<fact>, also <fact>
You must carry a kettle to Canada. Also, you should have a pair of socks as they are expensive there.
And / as well as
Both these words are used to add information that is related to the previous point of discussion
<fact> and <fact>
Item 1, 2, and 3
<fact> as well as <fact>
As polar caps are melting, we are seeing increased economical activities and ( /as well as) tourists visits.
Not only __ but also
The author wants to emphasise that both points are equally important.
<sentence> not only <point 1> but also <point 2>
We witnessed a population explosion due to not only improved medical practices but also improved nutrition.
On the one hand ___ on the other hand ___
The writer wants to highlight both sides. Usually, these linking words are used at the beginning of the paragraph.
On the one hand, <fact>. On the other hand, <counterfact>.
On the one hand, we talk about increasing pollution on every platform. On the other hand, we don’t mind getting our food packed in plastic containers.
The linking word ‘while’ is usually used to highlight the contrast in the same sentence.
While <fact>, <counterpoint>.
<Fact>, while <counterpoint>.
While we were busy celebrating the victory of the Indian cricket team, thieves robbed our house.
It is used to highlight the contrast.
<fact>. Instead, <counterpoart>
Most students take route A. Instead, you should try route B. It could be faster.
It is used at the beginning of a sentence or paragraph
<fact>. In contrast, <counterpoart>
Many tenants in Europe believe that apartments are better. In contrast, their American counterparts prefer individual houses.
These linking words are used when the writer wants to present his or her side but knows and admits the other side is true as well.
Despite can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. It helps to convey counterintuitive facts.
Despite <fact>, <coutnerpoint>. or
<fact>, despite <coutnerpoint>.
Despite the tremendous efforts of the coach, the team lost.
In spite of
Replaceable with despite
In spite of <fact>, <coutnerpoint>.
In spite of the tremendous efforts of the coach, the team lost.
Very similar to the previous two linking words
Although <fact>, <coutnerpoint>. or
<fact>, although <coutnerpoint>.
Although the coach made tremendous efforts, his team lost the game.
These linking words are useful when the writer wants to dismiss the other side completely.
Block the argument completely
<fact>, but <counterfact>.
Many youngsters want to start a business, but very few do.
The opposition by, however, is not as strong as ‘but’. Still, it is used to convey contrast or disagreement.
<fact>, however <counterfact>. OR
<fact>. However <counterfact>.
Yes, getting funding from venture capital firms is one way of starting businesses; however, I trust bootstrapped businesses more.
Similar to however
<fact>. Nonetheless <counterfact>.
98% of businesses close in about ten years period. Nonetheless, most entrepreneurs are discouraged.
Still / Yet
Both these linking words recognise the previous argument. Still, they deny it.
<fact>. Yet, <counterfact>.
<fact>. Still, <counterfact>.
I know cryptocurrency is booming and may grow in the future. Yet, I refuse to invest in it.
These linking words are similar to those used to add information. But, these linking words are used in a particular order to have structured discussion.
First ___ second ___ last
These three structures are used to distinguish two to three points in a paragraph.
There are multiple advantages of using mobile phones. First, we can stay connected with our loved ones. Second, we don’t need a wristwatch. Third, most of the work that we could do on laptops can be carried out using a mobile phone.
Moreover ___ Furthermore__ last.
Next, ___ finally
These linking words are used at the beginning of an example. Remember, when you give an example, it should support a point written just before it.
Used at the beginning of a sentence
<point>. For instance, / For example, <example>
There are many innovations in agriculture. For example, many youngsters are turning towards hydroponics.
We must care for elders. For instance, if they need assistance in using technology, we must provide it.
All these words can be used interchangeably.
<result> because <reason>.
I must get all umbrellas repaired because the monsoon is starting soon.
<result> since <reason>. OR
Since <reason>, <result>.
Since the world is sceptical about China, many companies are relying more on Vietnam and India.
<result> as <reason>. OR
As <reason>, <result>.
I wish to live near our office as I can save my commute time.
Linking words for the logical conclusion of an argument
<facts>. Thus, <conclusion>
We are getting into a subtle recession. Thus, we must cautious of our spendings.
<facts>. So, <conclusion>
It’s raining heavily in France. So, I may not go there this month.
These are used to conclude a scientific argument.
<facts>. Hence, <conclusion>
The bacteria showed little resistance to the antibiotic drug. Hence, it must be ineffective.
<facts>. Therefore, <conclusion>
The cyclone hit the west coast of the US. Therefore, we must deploy 20% more rescue force there.
As a result,
Convey a result.
<facts>. As a result, <result>
Hamas attacked Isreal. As a result, Israel launched a counterattack.
Used to begin the last paragraph of each essay on IELTS
Overall, technology enables us to communicate efficiently and achieve business targets.
In brief, <summary>.
In brief, we must practice caution while buying from supermarkets.
In summary, <summary>.
In summary, criminals must be punished based on the severity of the crime rather than any other criteria.
In conclusion, <summary>.
In conclusion, third worlds countries must unite to fight against the bullying of social media giants.